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ASTM C1308-2008 固化废料中扩散释放物加速浸出试验,模型扩散的计算机程序和从圆柱形废料状态中分离淋滤的标准试验方法

ASTM C1308-2008 固化废料中扩散释放物加速浸出试验,模型扩散的计算机程序和从圆柱形废料状态中分离淋滤的标准试验方法

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【英文标准名称】: Standard Test Method for Accelerated Leach Test for Diffusive Releases from Solidified Waste and a Computer Program to Model Diffusive, Fractional Leaching from Cylindrical Waste Forms
【原文标准名称】: 固化废料中扩散释放物加速浸出试验,模型扩散的计算机程序和从圆柱形废料状态中分离淋滤的标准试验方法
【标准号】: ASTM C1308-2008
【标准状态】: 现行
【国别】: 美国
【发布日期】: 2008
【实施或试行日期】:
【发布单位】: 美国材料与试验协会(US-ASTM)
【起草单位】: C26.07
【标准类型】: (Test Method)
【标准水平】: ()
【中文主题词】:
【英文主题词】: accelerated; diffusion; leach; waste; Accelerated leach test; Computer programs; Diffusive/fractional leaching; Leachates/leaching; Models/modeling--environmental; Nuclear scrap and waste materials; Solidified waste; Waste materials/processing/analysis
【摘要】: This test method can be used to measure the release of a component from a cylindrical solidified waste form into water at the reference temperature of 20x00B0;C and at elevated temperatures that accelerate the rate and extent of leaching relative to the values measured at 20x00B0;C. This test method can be used to: Compare releases of waste components from various types of solidification agents and formulations. Determine the diffusion coefficients for the release of waste components from waste forms at a specific temperature. Promote greater extents of reaction than can be achieved under expected service conditions within a laboratory time frame to provide greater confidence in modeled diffusive releases. Determine the temperature dependence of diffusive release. Fitting the experimental results with a mechanistic model allows diffusive releases to be extrapolated to long times and to full-scale waste forms under the following constraints: Results of this test method address an intrinsic property of a material and should not be presumed to represent releases in specific disposal environments. Tests can be conducted under conditions that represent a specific disposal environment (for example, by using a representative groundwater) to determine an effective diffusion coefficient for those conditions. Projections of releases over long times requires that the waste form matrix remain stable, which may be demonstrated by the behavior of the specimen in ALTs at elevated temperatures. Extrapolations in time and scale are limited to values that correspond to the maximum CFL value obtained in an accelerated test. The mechanism must be the same at all temperatures used in the extrapolation. The same model that describes the results of tests conducted at elevated temperatures must also describe the results of tests run at the reference temperature of 20x00B0;C.1.1 This test method provides procedures for measuring the leach rates of elements from a solidified matrix material, determining if the releases are controlled by mass diffusion, computing values of diffusion constants based on models, and verifying projected long-term diffusive releases. This test method is applicable to any material that does not degrade or deform during the test. 1.1.1 If mass diffusion is the dominant step in the leaching mechanism, then the results of this test can be used to calculate diffusion coefficients using mathematical diffusion models. A computer program developed for that purpose is available as a companion to this test method (Note 1). 1.1.2 It should be verified that leaching is controlled by diffusion by a means other than analysis of the leach test solution data. Analysis of concentration profiles of species of interest near the surface of the solid waste form after the test is recommended for this purpose. 1.1.3 Potential effects of partitioning on the test results can be identified through modeling, although further testing and analyses are required to determine the cause of partitioning (for example, if it occurs during production of the material or as a result of leaching). 1.2 The method is a modification of other semi-dynamic tests such as the IAEA test (1) and the ANS 16.1 Leach Test wherein elevated temperatures are used to accelerate diffusive release to an extent that would only be reached after very long times at lower temperatures. This approach provides a mechanistic basis for calculating diffusive releases at repository-relevant temperatures over long times, provided that the leaching mechanism does not change with temperature. 1.2.1 Tests can be conducted at elevated temperature......
【中国标准分类号】: Z13
【国际标准分类号】: 13_030_10
【页数】: 14P.;A4
【正文语种】: 英语

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